Language is made up of various aspects, its main two pillars being grammar and vocabulary. It is possible to generate meaning without grammar: "Yesterday. Pub. Friends. Good times." is a sentence that can be fully understood. To make meaningful sentences without proper vocabulary, on the other hand, is not reasonable: "Your table ate my cat.".
Simple mode focusses on a fact, a habit, a routine, around the time speaking.
Continuous (progressive) mode focusses on an action, or process, at the time speaking.
The present simple describes facts and regularities around now.
Fact: Water boils at 100°C.
Habit: I usually drink water.
Regularity: Every morning I get up at 6am.
Key words: they force us to use simple mode.
Higher Writing Test Part 2: Report
We looked at titles, functional vocabulary and phrases (see SB p77), linking words (and how they basically work), the report structure, paragraphs, sentences, and verb tenses.
See the writing section for mor input.
The past simple is used to make facts about the past, e.g. telling a story.
Regular verbs take the ending -ed (walked, lied, hammered, etc.).
Irregular verbs can be categorized into three groups:
1.) no change: cut - cut - cut
2.) 1 change: buy - bought - bought
3.) 2 changes:
3a) break - broke - broken
3b) take - took - taken
The past continuous is used to describe ongoing actions (processes) in the past:
'Yesterday at 7 I was eating dinner.' means that I started eating before 7, and ended eating dinner after seven. If an ongoing process in the past is interrupted by a new element to the story, this is signalled by the use of the past simple form: 'When I was eating dinner, the telephone rang.'
See grammar for irregular verbs and exercises.
1.) I have lost my key. (result: I don't have a key now.)
2.) We have just bought a house. (result: we own a house now.)
3.) This is the first time I have driven a car.
1.) Paul has been learning English for three years. (he is still learning)
2.) I have been trying to call her the whole morning. (assumingly unsuccessful attempt; recently stopped)
a) spontaneous decisions/offers: I'll help with your homework.
b) expectations: I'll be in the office at 9.
c) weather forecast: It will be sunny at the weekend.
The use of will-future indicates that the future is only likely to happen and, therefore, also likely not to happen.
a) decisions: I'm going to live in Canada next year.
(=I have decided to do so, so I know this is going to happen.)
b) knowledge & experience: He is not going to give you your money back. (=I have made some experience with this person, so I can tell.)
Defining relative clauses define the noun (house) or noun phrase (this beautiful house) directly before the noun and do not use commas. In the example, 'house' is defined by having green blinds, in contrast to the ones having blue blinds.
Non-defining relative clauses do not define but give extra information. Therefore, 'My brother' is defined by being an architect an not by living in Hong Kong. The extra information is to be found after or between commas.
In relative clauses we use relative pronouns to make reference to persons, things, concepts or places. Relative pronouns signal the beginning of the subordinate relative clause. 'That' is not used in non-defining relative clauses.
The first sentence, without commas, is defining. This means that only girls with skirts are nice. (Girls not wearing skirts are not nice.)
The second sentence, with commas, is non-defining. In this sentence, all girls are nice, and they may wear skirts.